Adopting a dog is one of the few times we can choose a family member. When people think of having a dog, they usually have visions of walking, hiking, going to an outdoor café, and just hanging out with a best friend. They want their dog and children to best buddies. Unfortunately this doesn’t always happen. As a dog trainer, I speak with many clients that just adopted a dog that bit their child, guards their food bowl, or tore up their house due to anxiety. Choosing a dog is not simple anymore. There are many places to get a dog like dog rescues, breeders, shelters, and Craig’s list. Some people trying to sell or adopt people a dog don’t have the buyer’s or adopter’s best interest at heart. The knowledge of dog rescue and shelter personnel varies, so I recommend adopters learn about how to choose a dog and decide for themselves. How does an average dog adopter sift through all the options and available dogs to find the match for them?
It all boils down to determining a dog’s genetic temperament and choosing the temperament that matches your family. A dog’s innate temperament is important because it is the foundation of the dog’s behavior and personality. The statement, “Its all how you raise them,” meaning that if you raise a dog with a good home, love, and some training, he will be a good family dog, is far from the truth. As a dog rescuer and dog foster mom (I wear two hats in the dog world), I have witnessed many, many dogs that suffered horrendous living conditions and abuse that are still wonderful friendly dogs. As a trainer I know of dogs that had nothing but a loving home that are unstable, aggressive, or anxious. While a loving home with proper boundaries and training will provide a dog the best chance at being a nice dog, it does not guarantee it. A dog is a sentient, individual living creature born with its own DNA and genetics. Genetic innate temperament is the reason police and service dog breeding programs are so selective. Innate temperament is why we cannot take a Coonhound and make it herd sheep. (Well, maybe we could, but it would be very difficult.) When choosing your family dog, pay a lot of attention to the dog’s temperament it is born with, not its history, size, or appearance. Use logic and instinct to choose a dog instead of pure emotion, pity, or physical attraction. The cutest dog with blue eyes may not be the right temperament for your family.
The temperament that makes a nice family dog is a dog that wants to be with people, is somewhat submissive, and has low prey drive without a high level of anxiety or fear. To find this kind of dog at an adoption event or a breeder’s location, start by observing from afar. Locate the dogs that are engaging with people with a low to medium height, wagging tail. A dog that is somewhat fearful or insecure should still have a desire to be with people to be easy to rehabilitate. A polite dog that is sitting or standing nicely while being petted is typically easier for an average pet guardian than a dog forcefully jumping off of people or wrapping its legs around a person. Forceful jumping or wrapping legs is more dominant behavior, although some dogs will lightly jump if they have been encouraged to do so by other people. One side note: do not give treats or food to dogs you are considering adopting as this will sway their interest in you and may create misleading results. A dog that comes up to you, sniffs and walks away, or jumps on you and walks away is usually a bit aloof and better for an adult home or more experienced dog owner. Aloof dogs are harder to train and care less about what their guardians want from them. Aloofness may be good in some situations if the dog is home alone a lot or someone desires a more independent dog.
After spotting a nice friendly dog that wants to be with people, walk over to it and pet it. Pet the dog under the chin, not on top of the head. Pet the dog on his back a little. Stop petting and see if the dog hangs out with you for more affection. The dog walking over to another person for affection and being social with many people is also good sign. If the dog is not interested in you and walks away or avoids you by sniffing items, I would look at other dogs. For a home with children, the dog that is naturally polite with children is optimal. I don’t want the dog to immediately jump up, nip, or avoid the kids. Polite interest is best.
The next step is to assess how sensitive and accepting the dog is of touch. Touch the dog’s teeth, ears, feet, tail in a gentle, calm manner**. I want the dog to either accept this touch or lick my hand. I assess plenty of dogs that are in pain with bad hips and rotten teeth that will not snap at me for touching their hips or mouth, so pain is not an excuse to bite when doing this kind of touch. If the dog bites, growls, gives you a hard stare, or stiffens, move on to another dog if you have children. If you have young children you want a dog that will not bite when your child accidentally steps on his tail or falls on his leg. Dogs that are more sensitive to touch are better for adult homes that will be able to recognize a dog’s comfort level better. Next take the dog for a walk. Change directions a few times and see if the dog follows you somewhat. Precise leash walking is not important, just the desire to follow a person. If the adopter turns the opposite way the dog is going, the dog will somewhat follow them after a couple turns. The easier the dog follows you the easier it will be to train. Observe if the dog is scared of any environmental things such as other people, strollers, bicycles, flags, or loud noises. If the dog startles to a dropping clipboard or metal water bottle, then comes to sniff it and moves on, that is desirable. If the dog gets scared and walks away or only investigates the object with coaxing, this dog is less confident and will require some rehabilitation and patience to become more confident. A dog that cannot recover and remains stuck in fear or runs away and will not return is a case for skilled professionals to help before adoption. A fearful dog may not be a good match for small children as kids can be erratic and noisy at times. If the dog has a lot of energy, make sure you have enough time and energy to fulfill the dog’s needs. Runners, hikers, and active people are best for high-energy dogs.
There are red flags to watch out for when adopting a dog. One is resource guarding, which is a dog that may growl or bite over toys and food. Resource guarding can be a serious problem and safety risk. Any dog put in a home with small children should be tested for resource guarding carefully. This is done by giving the dog a treat like a bone and approaching the dog**. A dog that stiffens, give a hard look, growls, bares teeth, or bites should not be placed with children, or most adults for that matter. Another red flag is outright aggressive behavior such as growling or biting. A dog with this behavior is going to be a difficult dog for the average adopter. A dog with fear to the point of being frozen, not liking people, or growling at people needs to be rehabilitated and trained before being adopted to the public. Another red flag is a rescue or breeder that makes excuses for the dog’s behavior. Dogs are amazingly resilient creatures. A dog that is outgoing and confident will not become overly scared or aggressive in a new situation. A stable dog will take only a few minutes to investigate and become comfortable in his new surroundings. A puppy hiding in the corner is a fearful puppy. A normal puppy will investigate a new place immediately. There are diamonds in the rough out there, but those dogs will require patience and they do show signs of liking people if ever so slightly. These dogs take time and can be extremely rewarding to help, but make sure you have the time and family to help that dog succeed.
When looking for a dog, use the above recommendations and don’t be in a rush to choose a dog that will be in your house for over a decade. A good dog is worth the time he takes to find. For more details on the above recommendations, please visit www.rescuedogsresponsibly.com and the matching Facebook page Rescue Dogs Responsibly. These resources are free to the public to help them find an amazing pet. The website features videos of dog behavior and evaluations plus a flow chart to help adopters choose a dog.
**As always be very cautious and use good judgment when touching or evaluating dogs. Any interaction with animals can be inherently dangerous.
About the Author:
Julie Hart is the founder of Hart to Heart Canine Training, offering in home, private consultations and dog training lessons. She is a Professional Member and Certified Dog Trainer of the International Association of Canine Professionals and a trainer on staff for a local rescue organization. She has presented twice at the International Association of Canine Professionals national conference. She received a scholarship to Training Cesar’s Way and gives classes for foster dog parents.
by Kim Freeman, The Cat Detective
As a professional Lost Cat Finder, I always see an increase in lost cat cases around the holidays. One of the most common reasons for a cat’s disappearance is an open door, whether from a distracted pet sitter, careless kids or even packing for a trip. With the general chaos of guests coming and going, keep your cat safe and be ready should the worst happen.
Cats are harder to recover than dogs and require special techniques beyond flyers on posts and a visit to the shelter. Would you know what to do if a pet sitter or visitor left a door open and your cat escaped? Take these steps to prevent your cat from ever going missing. This emergency situation can happen to even the best and most careful owners.
LEARN YOUR CAT’S HABITS
Get to know when your cat sleeps, what hours they are the most active, and note whether they prefer to be up in high places or down low. All this will be useful info should your cat ever get out.
HAVE THE SEARCH ZONE READY
If you have an indoor-only cat, be ready with a map of where to search. With indoor cats who escape, they are most often hiding within a 250-foot radius of the escape point. Outdoor access cats have a larger territory, so they are going to be usually within a 800-foot radius. Use Google maps to outline your home and search circle so you are ready if they get out.
This sounds basic, but you’d be surprised how many pet owners put their cats at risk. A cat inside a car can escape when involved in a traffic accident, or jump out prematurely when a door is opened (see the case of this cat slipping out at gas station at night). Cat carriers have been known to break open during traffic accidents, in vet parking lots, and on conveyor belts at airports. No matter how crabby your cat becomes with confinement, make sure you transport him/her in a secure carrier.
HAVE PHOTOS READY
Keep a recent photo of your cat on hand showing their face and body markings in case you need the photo for a lost cat flyer and poster. The ideal photo for a lost cat poster is against a plain background with your cat in a standing or sitting side view. One big photo is better than two hard to see small ones. Sitting or standing is key as it is the position strangers would most likely see them out in the world.
PREPARE A LOST CAT KIT
Store photos, microchip number and a mock-up lost cat flyer where they’re easy to access. Should you ever need them, this kit will save you precious time and stress. The best preparation is to at least skim the ebook and video “How to Find a Lost Cat” so you can swing into action immediately and know the appropriate steps for your situation and the common mistakes to avoid (like putting out food or cat litter).
It seems like GPS on a collar would good for those adventurous cats who like to roam, but so far, they are still fairly heavy bulky and depend on open sky. There are several devices on the market including the unwieldy Whistle, but based on my clients’ lost cats, I’ve found that RF technology works the best in terms of finding a cat’s exact location. Glow Track collars are ideal as they light up and offer an RF tracking option.
COLLAR & MICROCHIP
Even if you never let your cat out, you never know when an emergency will happen and your cat escapes. A visitor may leave the door open, cat carriers can break, a visitor could leave a window open or a burglar could break into your home, leaving the door open for your cat to escape outside. Paramedics could have to go to your or a relative’s home, and leave the door open during an emergency procedure.
I’ve even seen pets ejected from cars in traffic accidents. Most people never think these events could happen to them. But even indoor-only cats should wear a collar, tag and microchip because if they escape outside, they’re at risk of ultimately ending up in an animal shelter long after you have stopped searching.
Micro-chipping is equivalent to implanting a serial number in your pet as a means to return property to their rightful owner. Microchips are not GPS trackers they are for Identification, detectable with a microchip scanner used by shelters, veterinarians, and rescue groups. Make sure your cat is micro-chipped and especially make sure that chip is registered to YOU at your CURRENT address and phone number.
PROOF OF OWNERSHIP
Be able to demonstrate proof that you own your cat, as there is no guarantee the person who finds your pet will be willing to give it back to you. You will need to have something to show an officer to prove that this animal belongs to you. The best method to show proof of ownership is to have your pet microchipped. Check with your local shelter, rescue groups, and veterinarians to have this simple procedure performed (a shot where a microchip the size of a rice grain is implanted under your pet’s skin). If your pet has any special markings, markings inside their mouth, scars, tattoos, etc., photograph these areas and keep these photos in a special location with your cat’s vet records.
KEEP PHOTOS WITH YOUR VET
It is a good idea to keep a set of records and current pet photos with your veterinarian (they can be attached to your pet’s file). This way, your pet’s photo will be available should your home be destroyed (during fire or flood) or if the photos you kept at home get lost or destroyed.
Make sure your neighbors know you have a cat whether your cat is indoor only or outdoor access. That way, if your cat ever escapes they will know who it belongs to and will be more likely to rescue and return it to you when they see it. Also, being a good neighbor will increase the chances that your neighbors will help when your pet becomes lost. If your cat routinely roams and stalks birds or poops on neighbor property, make sure you have preempted any complaints by asking neighbors to let you know if your cat is a problem for them in any way. Be a responsible cat owner.
SECURE YOUR PROPERTY
Check carefully along perimeter of your fence for spaces or holes that you can fit a hand or fist into. Cats can get through tiny spaces, so add rocks or pack dirt to close them up. You’ll prevent your cat’s potential escape, as well as keep other critters from popping under for a visit. For those who let their cats out into the backyard, be warned; I’ve had many cases of cats who “always stayed in the backyard” yet vanished. Cats can jump five times their height, so unless you have secured the holes AND have a “Catio” or roll-top fence, your cat may unpleasantly surprise you with ninja escape abilities.
Look carefully from a low level: push on all boards to see if any are loose. Humans typically look downward and don’t see what our pets see. Pets have the time and interest to look, poke, and push in their efforts to escape. From their level, they may have found a small hole or loose board you did not see. If no holes at the base, look for hind claw marks near the top.
Remove any items leaning on or next to your fence. Woodpiles, garbage containers, kid toys, boxes, etc. next to a fence are a great springboard for cats to get over any fence, so make sure you are not offering an easy route out.
TRAIN YOUR CAT
Train your cat to come when you call, let you pick him up when outside and to enter a baited humane trap. Humane traps are one of the primary tools to recover an indoor-only cat. If you know that your cat will never be allowed free access out- doors, then teach your cat that humane traps = food and safety.
Simply get a humane trap (available here) and prop open both ends with a bungee cord and feed your cat inside the trap every day for a week until he enters and leaves without fear. If your cat should ever escape outdoors, you will increase your chances of recovery as your cat associates traps with food and is not afraid to enter. DO NOT train your cat to enter a trap if you live in an apartment complex in case the manager or a pest company sets up traps to remove feral cats.
COLLECT AND STORE SCENT & DNA
In the event your cat becomes lost and you need an animal trained to track lost pets, you’ll want to have a clean unadulterated sample of your pet’s scent. Save whiskers especially as they have a root attached which can be used to determine DNA. If no whiskers are available, put on a rubber glove, use a sterile gauze pad and wipe your pet’s body – wipe back, tummy, with a separate one for inside the mouth. Place the gauze pad inside a plastic bag. Write the date and your pet’s name on the outside of the bag. Try to have your cat’s DNA on hand in case it’s needed for making a positive ID. Collect a whisker, toenail clippings, and a few hairs that you have pulled from your pet which include the root. Shed hairs will not do– you need the root (which contains the DNA). Place all of these AND your gauze pad into the bag and place the bag in the back of your freezer. If you have multiple pets, make separate bags for each of them.
Should your cat ever escape, listen to the birds. They will issue raucous alerts to let others know there is a predator in the area. Even if you just want to know where your outdoor access cat is at any given moment, learn to listen to bird language to know when your cat has been spotted by these air spies.
Blue jays and mockingbirds are very vocal when they spot a cat and make a specific call you can learn and tune into.
GET PROFESSIONAL HELP
If you find yourself in the stressful position of searching for a missing cat, take action right away. Too many hope for the best and lose the key first ten days when recovery chances are highest. Consider ordering my on-demand tutorial and e-book, request a strategy consult, and remember, cats require special tactics. Make sure you use the right ones for your cat’s personality!
About the Author:
Kim Freeman is a professional pet detective for lost cats. She focuses all her attention on refining missing cat recovery techniques. In 2008 her orange cat, Mister Purr, went missing for several days. No one helped or took her seriously in her panic. Had she listened to their advice such as “He’ll come back when he’s ready,” or “Put his litter box outside!” Mister Purr would have died behind a fence in a rancher’s metal shipping container. Since then she’s spent years fine-tuning methods that work best to find lost cats. She’s been featured on CBS Morning News, KXAN-TV, and Time Warner News. She offers professional advice, consultation, and in-person search and rescue services through her website LostCatFinder.com.
by Jen Pearson, Head Trainer at Front Range K9
As a pet dog owner, the idea of reward-based training is likely very appealing to you – after all, you love your dog and want her to be happy! When we see a dog with laser focus and attentiveness to her handler, it looks awesome, right? She takes her treat eagerly and may even offer other behaviors in the hopes of keeping the game going. What could possibly be wrong with a training system that does that? (more…)
by Dan Spangler, certified trainer & owner of A Dog’s Dream
Your forever day is coming, and it seems like everything is coming together perfectly. The dress is fitted, the venue is chosen, and the photographer has taken the engagement photos, but then suddenly you feel like something is missing. As you sit there tapping your leg trying to figure out what is wrong, your faithful friend walks up and puts his head in your lap and looks up at you with “those” eyes. That’s it! You forgot to include your trusted companion in your big day. Oh no! (more…)
by Patricia Varian, owner of Varian Kennels
Have you ever tried to quit a bad habit? Easy? No! The longer you’ve been doing that unwanted behavior the more triggers there are that set it off. It seems impossible to ever be truly free from that old nasty routine. But, alas, triggers can be broken, and new habits can form! Not only with us humans, but for our pets as well! It just takes a combination of enormous self-control and time. (more…)